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We develop a methodology to construct real effective exchange rates that incorporate two distinctive elements not accounted for in the traditional measures: i) competition in third markets and ii) adjustments for similarity in export baskets between exporters and their competitors. In addition to constructing competitionadjusted real effective exchange rates at the aggregate country level, we develop similar measures at the country-product, country-destination, and country-productdestination level. We then build a novel and public dataset where we apply this methodology to compute monthly adjusted REERs for a panel of 120 countries and 769 products. As an application, we use the dataset to examine the changes in export competitiveness in countries in Latin America and the Caribbean between May 2014 and February 2016, a period characterized by substantial movements in exchange rates. We find that using traditional measures of real effective exchange rates misallocates between one third and one half of the relevant weights, and it leads to an important underestimation of the loss in export competitiveness. Furthermore, we find that there are very significant differences across products and destinations with regards to changes in export competitiveness.
The 2017 Macroreport considers recent developments in the global economy and how they may affect Latin America and the Caribbean. It reviews how countries are adapting to external conditions and how those policies may be improved. This year, the report focuses particularly on deeper and smarter regional integration as an attractive route to boost productivity and growth. (View publication)
This paper shows that bank linkages have a positive effect on international trade. A global banking network (GBN) is constructed at the bank level, using individual syndicated loan data from Loan Analytics for 1990-2007. Network distance between bank pairs is computed and aggregated to country pairs as a measure of bank linkages between countries. Data on bilateral trade from IMF DOTS are used as ... (View publication)
This paper explains in detail the external sustainability assessment approach given by the stock-flow relationship between the net external positions, non-income current account plus net capital transfers, and real exchange rate. This approach consists of determining the non-income current account over GDP that would stabilize a benchmark net foreign asset (NFA) position over the medium term, ... (View publication)
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