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After decades using monetary aggregates as the main instrument of monetary policy and having different varieties of crawling peg exchange rate regimes, Colombia adopted a full-fledged inflation-targeting (IT) regime in 1999, with inflation as the nominal anchor, a floating exchange rate, and the short-term interest rate as the main instrument. This paper examines the experience of the Colombian Central Bank over the last decade, a period of consolidation and innovation of its IT strategy. The paper studies the increasing number of instruments used by the CB, including systematic foreign exchange interventions, announcements, and, sporadically, macro-prudential policies, capital controls, and changes in reserve requirements, among others. The study also examines some political economy dimensions that help explain the behavior of the CB during this period. To guide the discussion, a small-scale open-economy policy model is estimated.
Financial liberalization has not lived up to expectations, at least as far as interest rate spreads are concerned. Over the past decade, many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have reformed their financial sectors and reaped major economic benefits as a result. However, the persistence of high interest rate spreads -the difference between the interest charged to borrowers and the rate p ... (View publication)
What are the sources of structural volatility in Latin America? To address this question, Macroeconomic Volatility in Reformed Latin America focuses on the factors responsible for macroeconomic instability in three Latin American economies: Argentina, Mexico, and Chile. It finds that volatility in these countries can largely be traced to two critical weaknesses: weak links with international finan ... (View publication)
Monetary normalization may be a chronicle foretold, but countries still have the power to influence the outcome for their own economies. This report focuses on the risks Latin American and Caribbean countries face and how they can reduce vulnerabilities and enhance opportunities. (View publication)
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