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Tradable permit markets for carbon dioxide (C02) emissions respond to short-run fluctuations in economic activity. To provide stability, both price and quantity interventions have been proposed. This paper focuses on the relative performance of fixed versus intensity allowances in the presence of both productivity and energy price uncertainty. Both instruments achieve the same steady-state emissions reduction target of 20 percent, which is similar to the current policy proposals, and the regulator then chooses the allowance policy that has the lowest expected abatement cost. A standard real business cycle (RBC) model is used to solve for the expected abatement cost under both policies. Expected cost outcomes are compared using data from the U.S. economy as the baseline scenario. Unlike previous studies, this paper’s results show that, under a reasonable model calibration, fixed allowances outperform intensity allowances by a cost difference of as much as 30 percent.
This issue of IDEA covers some of the IDB’s recent research on climate change, including efforts on both the mitigation and adaptation fronts. That research includes both surprising findings and an underlying understanding that the region’s development must take into account -and will in many ways be shaped by- how it deals with this unique and inescapable issue. (View publication)
This paper studies the influence of external financial factors on economic activity in emerging economies (EMEs) motivated by a considerable increase in foreign financing by the corporate sector in EMEs since the early 2000s, mainly in the form of bond issuance. A quarterly external financial indicator for several EMEs is built using bond-level data on spreads of corporate bonds issued in fore ... (View publication)
The general objective of this study is to review the international literature and best practices to develop a methodological framework capable of quantifying the increase in investments necessary for a traditional standard of living in a world subject to climate change. This methodology is then applied to two case studies: Bolivia and Chile. In particular, the document addresses the economics of a ... (View publication)
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