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This paper surveys the evolution and implications of fiscal decentralization in Colombia in recent decades. After describing the fiscal decentralization process and its impact on sub-national finances, the paper presents the evolution of departmental public finances, departmental vertical imbalances and the proposal to levy a VAT surcharge and a retail sales tax for the departments. The paper subsequently describes the evolution of municipal finances and municipal vertical imbalances, then includes calculations of the effective rates of the property and land tax and the industry and commerce tax, estimating the municipal tax burden, the efficiency rate of tax collection, and the determinants of both. The paper concludes with policy recommendations.
This paper estimates potential Mexican sub-national tax revenues using a stochastic frontier model. The results suggest that states are exploiting their current tax bases, particularly the payroll tax, appropriately. Mexican municipalities, however, have a low rate of tax collection compared to their potential, especially in relation to the property tax, which is their most important source of rev ... (View publication)
This project examines fiscal reforms in Brazil since the 1990s, particularly in taxation, budgeting, and fiscal federalism. While recentralizing fiscal authority and massively expanding the extractive capacity of the state, policymakers chose not to revamp an inefficient tax system that has nonetheless proven capable of generating high levels of revenue. In budgeting, the economic crises of the mi ... (View publication)
This paper analyzes the problem of sub-national revenue mobilization in Peru and proposes several policy reforms to improve collection performance while maintaining a sound revenue structure. In particular, the paper analyzes the current revenues of regional and municipal governments and identifies the main priorities for reform. Among the most important problems are the acute inequalities and ine ... (View publication)
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