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This paper estimates potential Mexican sub-national tax revenues using a stochastic frontier model. The results suggest that states are exploiting their current tax bases, particularly the payroll tax, appropriately. Mexican municipalities, however, have a low rate of tax collection compared to their potential, especially in relation to the property tax, which is their most important source of revenue and relatively simple to collect. Empirical evidence further suggests that tax collection efforts are strongly related to GDP per capita, and that some political economy factors can influence them. Political affiliation, for example, influences municipalities’ tax collection effort more than that of states. The analysis of a scenario in which some VAT and PIT taxation powers are returned to the states suggests that a state surcharge on the VAT and PIT could increase states’ own revenues. Without broadening the tax base and redefining the revenue-sharing allocation criteria, however, doing so would have a strong and adverse impact on the revenue distribution of sub-national governments.
This paper surveys the evolution and implications of fiscal decentralization in Colombia in recent decades. After describing the fiscal decentralization process and its impact on sub-national finances, the paper presents the evolution of departmental public finances, departmental vertical imbalances and the proposal to levy a VAT surcharge and a retail sales tax for the departments. The paper subs ... (View publication)
This project examines fiscal reforms in Brazil since the 1990s, particularly in taxation, budgeting, and fiscal federalism. While recentralizing fiscal authority and massively expanding the extractive capacity of the state, policymakers chose not to revamp an inefficient tax system that has nonetheless proven capable of generating high levels of revenue. In budgeting, the economic crises of the mi ... (View publication)
This paper analyzes the problem of sub-national revenue mobilization in Peru and proposes several policy reforms to improve collection performance while maintaining a sound revenue structure. In particular, the paper analyzes the current revenues of regional and municipal governments and identifies the main priorities for reform. Among the most important problems are the acute inequalities and ine ... (View publication)
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