|RELATED TOPICS:||Poverty Reduction and Labor|
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The paper uses microeconomic data to characterize entrepreneurs by income group and selected household, individual and business characteristics, finding that entrepreneurship is rare but more frequent in the upper class than the middle or lower classes. Middle-class entrepreneurs are, on average, better off than middle-class employees of similar characteristics but differ greatly from upper-class entrepreneurs in terms of educational attainment, the size of their businesses, and their outcomes. While entrepreneurs appear to have more income mobility than the average worker, this paper cannot establish whether this is true for middle-class entrepreneurs in particular, nor provide evidence to support the hypothesis that middle-class entrepreneurs’ activity is an engine for economic growth. Instead, the findings suggest that the types of businesses run by these entrepreneurs are characterized by low productivity. Consequently, policies to increase social mobility seem to hold greater promise for promoting higher productivity and welfare than policies encouraging entrepreneurship.
Using the Quality of Life Surveys conducted in Colombia in 2003 and 2008, this study finds that policy instruments aimed at easing low-income households’ access to affordable housing such as subsidies and loan guarantees have played a modest role in increasing the use of mortgages as a source of funding. Despite this, subsidies have had a significant impact on both the quality of dwelling and the ... (View publication)
Many developing countries have adopted the market approach for expanding the supply of child care, but little is known about the economic behavior of independent providers. This paper draws on uniquely rich administrative data on child care centers and their inputs from São Paulo to examine the role of local household income in shaping the entry and quality choices of private suppliers. It documen ... (View publication)
Identity is an increasingly hot topic in today's world. Whether it's hunting for terrorists, searching for lost children, identifying casualties from the tsunami and Hurricane Katrina, or naming bodies in mass graves, identity is the point of departure. Even the more mundane activities of life--driving a car, getting on an airplane, going to school--are predicated on proof of identity. In this lig ... (View publication)
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