|RELATED TOPICS:||Poverty Reduction and Labor|
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This paper examines the causal link between early childhood nutrition and cognition, applying instrumental variables to sibling-differences for a sample of pre-school aged Peruvian children. Child-specific shocks in the form of food price changes and household shocks during a child’s critical developmental period are used as instruments. The analysis shows significant, positive returns to early childhood nutritional investments. An increase in the Height-for-Age z-score of one standard deviation translates into increases in the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) score of 17-21% of a standard deviation. The period of analysis includes the recent global food price crisis that also affected Peru between 2006 and 2008. Thus, this quantifies the nutritional and subsequent cognitive costs of food prices on the sample which could be magnified in later years.
This paper uses microdata from Brazilian vital statistics natality and mortality data between 2000 and 2010 to estimate the impact of in-utero exposure to local violence -measured by homicide rates- on birth outcomes. Focusing on small communities, where it is more plausible that local homicide rates reflect actual exposure to violence, the analysis shows that exposure to violence during pregnancy ... (View publication)
A growing body of research argues that early adverse experiences have lasting effects not only on later health outcomes, but also on human capital accumulation. This paper investigates the persistent effect of negative shocks early in life on children’s health and cognitive outcomes, and explores whether shocks at certain periods matter more than others. The paper exploits the geographic inten ... (View publication)
Despite governments’ best efforts, many people in Latin America and the Caribbean don’t have the skills they need to thrive. This book looks at what policies work, and don’t work, so that governments can help people learn better and realize their potential throughout their lifetimes. (View publication)
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